Katyn Memorial - Sobieski, Wladyslaw II, Kosciuszko & Pulaski
The National Katyn Memorial in Baltimore, Maryland
Below is the text which will be placed in the center and on the right side of the Katyn memorial panel. See the description of the left part of the panel.
Read about Katyn massacre,
see the Katyn monument: Photo I, Photo II and Photo III.
The center of the panel (below) contains the photograph of the Katyn monument built in the Katyn forest (center) and the photographs of Polish officers who lost their lives in Katyn
- click inside it to see the images magnified
Below is the description of the right side of the panel
KING WLADYSLAW III, shown dressed for battle, fought against the Ottoman Turks until 1444 when he was killed in the battle of Warna on the Black Sea. His nickname of Warenczyk is derived from Warna (to the right from the center on the panel sketch).
KING JAN III SOBIESKI, shown in the uniform of his famous heavy cavalry (right), led his Winged Hussars, armed with the lances depicted in the monument, and defeated the Ottoman Turks, lifting the siege of Vienna in 1683. This is one of the most important battles of European history because it halted the expansion of the Ottoman Empire for all time. Because of his exploits, Sobieski was called The Lion of the North.
KAZIMIERZ PULASKI is another Polish hero of the American Revolution.
General Pulaski recruited many volunteers in the Baltimore area. He organized a Cavalry Brigade and became
known as the Father of the American Cavalry. He is credited with saving George Washington's
retreating army at the Battle of Brandywine. In 1779, leading an attack against the British in the battle of
Savannah, Georgia, he was severely wounded and died soon thereafter. To the right-bottom of the
panel sketch. Read more about Kazimierz
Pulaski in the article written by Andrew Gugalo.
TADEUSZ KOSCIUSZKO, the Father of American Artillery, (sketch is on the left) served under George Washington in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. The fortified defenses he designed at Saratoga were decisive in the battle against the British. His engineering skills in designing these and the defenses at West Point and Philadelphia earned him the rank of General.
Kościuszko is credited as being one of America's first civil rights advocates. In his Last Will & Testament he named his friend Thomas Jefferson as his executor and bequeathed his entire American estate to be used to purchase the freedom of Negro slaves and to educate them to become useful citizens.
In 1784 Kościuszko returned to Poland. He became a Polish national hero when he led the fight to overturn the Partitions of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Although unsuccessful, he instilled a strong sense of national pride into all the citizens of Poland. Supporting and identifying with the common man was the source of his personal fame and popularity. He is pictured wearing a peasant's coat and a four-cornered Rogatywka hat and carrying a scythe. Scythes straightened into lances were common weapons of Kościuszko's peasant-soldiers. The rogatywka with its characteristic square shape has been symbolic of the Polish soldier since Kościuszko's time. It can be seen in various places on the monument.
The artist of the panels/figures is Carla Tomaszewski, grapics designer, see her website
Text developed and written by the Signage Committee of The National Katyn Memorial Foundation
Photographs by Richard P. Poremski, contact the author by e-mail
Help to install the panel with the tax-deductible donation sent to:
The National Katyn Memorial Foundation
Baltimore MD 21224
Poland: An Illustrated History (Illustrated Histories), by Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski
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